Types of lung cancer:
In the United States, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality. It is a kind of cancer that begins in the lungs and spreads to other parts of the body. Early lung cancer signs might be mild, but the earlier you are discovered, the better your treatment options and potential results.
Early detection of lung cancer is critical. If caught early enough, treatment options may improve outcomes for patients. A recent study showed that the use of CT scans to screen people for lung cancer could save about 11,000 lives each year.
Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are the most common treatments for lung cancer. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy are two newer approaches. Chemotherapy is one the leading types of treatment as the cost of chemotherapy is affordable and the side effects are temporary.
Some of the common types of lung cancer are mentioned below:
1. Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)
Small cell lung cancer accounts for about 12% of all lung cancers. SCLC grows fast and spreads early. Patients have short survival times after diagnosis, and the 5-year relative survival rate for patients diagnosed between 1975 and 2004 was only 8%. Most people who develop small cell lung cancer are over age 50, although young adults may also get it.
2. Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
Non-small cell lung cancer makes up about 85% of all lung cancers, and most patients are older than 65 years old. NSCLC includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma, bronchioalveolar carcinoma, and other types.
Squamous cell carcinomas make up about 50% of all non-small cell lung cancers. Adenocarcinomas account for about 30% of all non-small cell lung cancers. Large cell carcinomas account for about 10% of non-small cell lung carcinomas.
Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer that starts when cells called mesothelial cells line the lungs, heart, liver, and pleura. These cells produce a protective layer around organs.
Mesotheliomas occur mainly in men who breathe in asbestos fibers. Asbestos causes mesothelioma by damaging the mesothelial cells and causing them to become cancerous. Mesotheliomal tumors spread slowly. If detected early, they often respond well to treatment. If not treated, they tend to recur and metastasize.
5. Pleural Mesothelioma (PM)
Pleural mesothelioma, which affects the lining of the chest cavity and diaphragm, is caused by exposure to asbestos. PM is a slow-growing cancer that spreads through the lymph system. About half of cases are diagnosed at late stages. People who work in jobs involving asbestos exposure are at higher risk of developing pleural mesotheliomas.
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of death among men and women in the United States. Cigarettes contain nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, nitrosamines, ammonia, volatile hydrocarbons, heavy metals, arsenic, lead and benzene. These chemicals damage cells in the lungs, causing them to become cancerous.
Second-hand smoke contains many of the same toxins as regular cigarette smoke, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and formaldehyde. In addition, second-hand smoke contains radon gas, which can increase the risk of lung cancer.
This cancer rates declined significantly between 1990 and 2000. Since then, however, the decline has slowed. While lung cancer rates have decreased for both men and women over time, these declines were not seen in younger age groups. Between 2001 and 2005, Its mortality increased by 1% in men and 2% in women.
Prenatal exposure to second-hand smoke was associated with several birth defects. Maternal exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke during pregnancy appears to be linked to a number of serious problems in offspring, including low birth weight, cleft palate, congenital heart disease, hypospadias, and omphalocele.
Children born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy are at greater risk of developing asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sudden infant death syndrome.
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